Extraction of Ions

The extraction of ionic species, especially from aqueous phases into organic phases, often requires somewhat specialized treatment, generally ion-exchange or ion-pairing extraction. In ion-exchange extraction the ionic compound is covalently bonded to a compound of opposite charge, resulting in a neutral species. The more common ion-pairing extraction is based on formation of a neutral ion pair through the interaction of the ionic species of interest with a counterion. The resulting neutral ion pair is soluble in organic solvents. Usually solubility is greater in polar solvents. The solubility in the organic solvent is usually increased by selecting an ion-pair reagent containing a nonpolar portion in addition to the charged moiety. Counterions used are generally soft acids or bases possessing large ionic radii. In addition to selection of the counterion, experimental parameters that can influence ion-pair extractions include pH, ionic strength (i.e., the total concentration of all ionic species in the sample), organic solvent, and flow rate.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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