Esterification with Acidified Alcohols

For analytical work, esterification with methanol through to isoamyl alcohol is best done in the presence of a volatile catalyst such as hydrogen chloride, thionyl chloride or acetyl chloride, which can be readily removed together with any excess alcohol. Fatty acids are often methylated by a short boiling with BF3/methanol, and this catalyst has proved to be effective even for transesterification of acylglycerols (neutral lipids are, however, most easily saponified using sodium or potassium hydroxide in methanol). Higher alcohols, most often n-butanol and iso-butanol, have been used for HCl-catalysed esterification of amino acids in two steps (with lower alcohols, evaporative losses of the lower mass members occur). For effective conversion, heating at or above 100°C is required.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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