Esterification via Carbodiimide Induced Coupling

The carbodiimide-coupled esterification of carboxylic acids is a well-known reaction in organic chemistry. N,N'-Dialkylcarbodiimides act as water scavengers, promoting condensation of an acid with an alcohol while being transformed into an N,N'-dialkylurea (from X-N=C=N-X to X-NHCONH-X, where X is an alkyl radical). For example, diisopropylcarbodiim-ide (DIC) was used for the esterification of some aromatic acids with hexafluoroisopropanol. A concentration of 0.1-0.15% DIC and the alcohol in hexane was found to be sufficient to esterify within 1 min.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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