Emulsifiers

Organic substances added to food products to form emulsions are very complex mixtures. At present, there is no universal analytical method to elucidate the nature and origin of an emulsifier. Nevertheless,

Figure 7 Analysis of inter-esterified cocoa butter. P, palmitic acid; S, stearic acid; O, oleic acid.

Figure 8 HTCGC analysis of Triton X-100 as trimethylsilyl derivatives. Numbering: ethylene oxide (EO) units.

HTCGC allows the characterization of a large number of emulsifying mixtures. This is illustrated with the analysis of two commercially available emulsi-fiers: one based on sorbitol (Figure 10A) and one on lactic acid (Figure 10B). Both samples were analysed on an automated HTCGC instrument (HP 6890) equipped with a 13 mx 0.32 mm i.d. x0.1 |im methylsilicone column and a cool on-column injector. The silylated samples were injected in the oven track mode with an oven temperature programme from 70 to 370°C at 15°C min-1. Hydrogen was the carrier gas at 25 kPa.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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