One of the main drawbacks of MLC techniques is the loss observed in the chromatographic efficiency as compared with that obtained in RPLC with aqueous-organic mobile phases. This efficiency loss is attributed to the increase in the resistance of solute mass transfer from the mobile phase to the stationary phase. However, the addition of small quantities of an organic modifier to the mobile phase and an increase in the working temperature have shown that efficiencies similar to those obtained in RPLC with aqueous-organic mobile phases may be attained. Other suggestions include working with low flow rates and low surfactant concentrations. Indeed, it has been shown that the use of a high surfactant concentration in the mobile phase may cause efficiency loss.

Surfactant adsorption on the stationary phase seems to have a great influence on the efficiency. The addition of a short or medium chain alcohol causes surfactant desorption out of the stationary phase and improves efficiency. This effect increases with increase in the modifier's concentration and hydropho-bicity.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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