Detectors Mass Spectrometry

commercially available have relied on a particular ionization method and this presented limitations to the range of compounds that could be handled. Until the early 1980s, the mainstay ionization techniques were electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI), both of which required the sample to be in the vapour state. Development of LC-MS was slow, due to problems of matching vacuum requirements with liquid flow. Early interfaces utilized direct liquid introduction, usually after splitting the LC eluate. Thermal evaporation of the fraction of the liquid taken into the MS was followed by either EI or CI, with the reagent ions being generated from the solvent in the case of CI.

Of the many interfaces that have been reported, those most commonly employed in present applications are based on the following: particle beam (monodisperse aerosol generator interface for chromatography or MAGIC), continuous flow-fast atom bombardment (CF-FAB), thermospray and atmospheric pressure ionization.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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