Detection and Quantification of Substances on Paper Chromatograms or Electropherograms

As in TLC, following separation the papers are removed from the developing chamber and dried. Coloured spots were visualized directly without difficulty, whilst those that fluoresce under UV irradiation were also detected relatively easily. In the case of colourless compounds, many of the visualization procedures, of varying degrees of specificity, currently used for this purpose in TLC were also used for detection after paper chromatographic separation, using either spraying or dipping. Although considered primitive by comparison with modern methods, separations on paper were also used for quantitative assays in addition to qualitative work. As with other planar methods, varying degrees of sophistication were employed, from comparison of the size of spots compared to a standard, cutting out the bands/spots and eluting the analytes for subsequent spectroscopic determination (i.e. UV, visible or fluorescence measurements) all the way up to the use of den-sitometry (with accuracies of +5%).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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