Designer Dyes

In 1968 Haeckel and others observed during gel filtration that Cibacron Blue F3G-A, the textile dye part of blue dextran, bound to pyruvate kinase. This observation subsequently led to the purification of a whole series of proteins and opened a new chapter in the role of textile dyes in protein purification. Dyes usually contain polyaromatic ring systems with electron withdrawing or donating groups and proteins contain a variety of hydrophobic and ionic residues. This complementarity assists in dye-protein interactions. Chlorotriazine dyes are inexpensive, easily synthesized and immobilized on solid support matrices and display a high capacity for proteins. The binding action mimics the binding of natural an-ionic heterocyclic substrates such as nucleotides, nucleic acids, adenosine triphosphate and coenzymes with enzymes. However, proteins (factor X, thrombin and kallikrein) that bind to cationic substrates have also been reported to bind nonspecifically to anionic dyes. Synthetic dyes have several advantages over biologics, although they can lack specificity. This prompted the de novo design and synthesis of bio-mimetic ligands aimed at specific sites on target proteins.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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