Description of Some CCD Apparatus

CCD with only a few transfers (up to 10) can easily be carried out by using a set of separating funnels for mixing, settling and phase separation. For small phase volumes, 0.5-5 mL, the separating funnels can be replaced by test tubes and the upper phases can be transferred with the aid of a pipette. For CCDs with more than 10 transfers it is strongly advised that some kind of automatic apparatus is used. Some examples of such apparatuses are presented next.

Figure 4 Section of the all-glass apparatus for CCD constructed by Craig. (A) Two segments (or tubes) are shown from side and top views. Normally 50-1000 tubes are connected and placed on a horizontal rack which allows simultaneous mixing of all tubes. (B) By turning the axis the upper phases can be decanted. When returning to the original position the upper phases are transferred to the neighbouring tube.

Figure 4 Section of the all-glass apparatus for CCD constructed by Craig. (A) Two segments (or tubes) are shown from side and top views. Normally 50-1000 tubes are connected and placed on a horizontal rack which allows simultaneous mixing of all tubes. (B) By turning the axis the upper phases can be decanted. When returning to the original position the upper phases are transferred to the neighbouring tube.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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