Derivatization of Amino Acids to Form Diastereoisomers

One of the earliest strategies to be implemented for the separation of amino acid is the formation of diastereoisomeric derivatives using an optically pure chiral derivatizing reagent. These can then be separated relatively easily on conventional stationary phases with achiral eluents. The major difficulty with this approach is ensuring that the reagent is indeed 100% optically pure and that racemization (of either reagent or amino acid) does not occur during the derivatization reaction. Clearly, if attempting to determine optical purity at the 0.1% level, even a 99.9% pure reagent is not sufficient. However, if these conditions can be met, the methodology is easy and robust. A huge range of chiral derivatizing reagents have been prepared and many of these can be used for amino acids. These applications would include the use of, for example, substances such as Marfey's reagent (1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-l-alanine amide), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-d-glucopyran-osyl isocyanate (GITC) and similar compounds, or the fluorescent 1-(9-fluorenyl)ethylchloroformate (FLEC). In addition, it is possible to form highly fluorescent diastereoisomeric isoindoles from amino acids using O-phthaldialdehyde and a chiral thiol. Whilst these examples are among the most common chiral derivatizing reagents, there are many others.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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