It was noted early on that separation of free acids is frequently hampered by their relatively low volatility, molecular association and, particularly, their adsorption on the stationary phase support with the resultant tailing, peak distortion and ghosting. Although special columns (FFAP, OV-351, SP-1000) have been developed since then for the separation of short and medium chain free (underivatized) aliphatic acids, the majority of carboxylic acids (especially those containing additional polar substituents) are insufficiently volatile for analysis by GC. Therefore, the carboxyl and other polar groups are usually converted to less polar derivatives to improve their chromatographic properties.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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