Deoxynivalenol (Figure 2), also called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene metabolite of F. graminearum, an organism which causes a disease in barley and wheat called head blight or scab. Deoxynivalenol is found as a contaminant of barley, wheat, corn and rye and causes adverse health effects in animals and humans, including feed refusal and vomiting in swine. An advisory level of 1 |Jg g 1 has been set for finished wheat products. Methods for analysis have been devised using LC and TLC. The TLC method uses acetonitrile-water (84 : 16 v/v) extraction and cleanup using a charcoal-alumina-Celite (7:5:3 v/v) column. The extracts and standard deoxynivalenol are dissolved in methanol and spotted near the 20 cm edge of a 20 x 10 cm Linear-K High Performance (Whatman, Clifton NJ) or equivalent silica gel plate and developed with chloroform-acetone-2-propanol (8:1:1 v/v). After drying the plate is sprayed with aluminium chloride solution (20 g AlCl3.6H2O in 100 mL methanol-water: 1 : 1 v/v) and then heated in an oven at 120° for 7 min. Under 365 nm ultraviolet light, deoxynivalenol appears as a blue fluorescent spot at Rf = 0.78. Spots may be scanned with a densitometer.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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