Data Processing

Provided that the separation itself is reliable (which cannot always be taken for granted), the subsequent transformations are subject to errors:

• Elution time to elution volume: because of the logarithmic relation between molar mass and elu-tion volume, small changes of the flow rate can cause large errors in molar mass.

• Elution volume to molar mass: the molar mass of a fraction can be obtained either from calibration or from a molar mass-sensitive detector (in addition to the concentration detector).

• Detector response to polymer concentration: this requires a sufficiently wide linear range, a well-defined response of the detector(s) along the entire peak (i.e. for all molar masses within the MMD) and, in the case of copolymers, a second concentration detector.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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