Crystallization

In the context of enantiomer separations crystallization techniques are attractive for several reasons. Firstly, in many instances they are more straightforward and more economical than any other method. Secondly, these methods, once considered old-fashioned, have, during the past two decades, been greatly improved in their rationale and efficiency, as a consequence of a better knowledge of the properties upon which separations by crystallization are based: identification of racemate types, utilization of phase diagrams describing solid-liquid equilibria. Thirdly, these methods apply not only to the resolution of racemates (i.e. 1 : 1 mixtures of d and l enantiomers), they can also be used for obtaining pure enantiomers from nonracemic (partially resolved) mixtures, regardless of their origin. And finally, the so-called crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation overcomes the inherent 50% yield limitation of a resolution, permitting up to 100% of a racemic material to be converted into one enantiomer in a single stage.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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