Counter Immunoelectrophoresis

This technique is a modification of conventional IE, that is performed in agar-agar gels at pH 8.0. Under these conditions, the antibodies are positively charged whereas the antigens present a negative net charge. Antigen and antibodies are applied in wells of 3 mm diameter, as indicated in Figure 2. Antibodies are placed on the well nearest to the anode and the sample in that close to the cathode. By applying a voltage across the gel the antigen and the antibodies move towards each other, forming lines of precipitation between the two wells. For this technique, the utilization of agar-agar gels is convenient since the medium, at the pH commonly used, generates a significant electroendosmotic flow that increases the cathodic movement of the antibodies. This technique can be used to detect both antigen and antibodies; rapidity is the main advantage.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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