Conventional Isoelectric Focusing

In principle, pH gradients could be obtained by diffusion of non-amphoteric buffers but such 'artificial' gradients would be altered by changes in electric migration and diffusion of the buffer ions. Thus, Svensson in 1961 introduced the concept of 'natural' pH gradients, created and stabilized by the electric current itself. The buffers used in this system required two fundamental properties: first amphoterism, so that they could reach an equilibrium position along the separation column and secondly 'carrier' ability. This last concept is more subtle, but just as fundamental. Any ampholyte cannot simply be used for IEF; only a carrier ampholyte, that is a compound capable of transporting the current (a good conductor) and capable of carrying the pH (a good buffer). With this notion, and with Vesterberg's elegant synthesis of such ampholytes in 1969, present-day conventional IEF was born.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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