Conclusions

The simple and straightforward coupling of HPLC and ESR causes problems owing to the necessity to synchronize the chromatographic and the spectro-scopic techniques. The first example presented shows that it is impossible to distinguish between more than two similar paramagnetic compounds with either technique alone. Therefore, the direct combination of both techniques requires additional equipment to solve the problems encountered. The second example demonstrates a tool to identify low concentrations, but highly reactive radicals, in separate fractions.

Our modified online HPLC-ESR coupling technique represents a suitable tool to solve such problems without any significant time lag with a high signal sensitivity comparable to conventional cw-ESR. Furthermore, the technique presented prevents severe problems that frequently occur in stop-flow chromatographic applications.

See also: II/Chromatography: Liquid: Detectors: Fluorescence Detection; Detectors: Infrared; Detectors: Mass Spectrometry; Detectors: Refractive Index Detection; Detectors: Ultraviolet and Visible Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Detectors.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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