Silylating reagents were introduced in the 1960s and have been widely accepted as general purpose de-rivatizing reagents for GC, especially for polyfunc-tional compounds where derivatization is reduced to a one-step process. In the 1990s chloroformates were discovered as another family of powerful reagents which, in conjunction with a component of the medium, readily enable derivatization of many hydrogen-containing groups. They bring the additional advantage of derivatization in aqueous media, which often considerably simplifies the sample work-up. Last but not least, advanced alkylation/esterification procedures allow the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of analytes in sample matrices. The present

D. McMinn, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA, USA Copyright © 2000 Academic Press

The two most common detectors for use after separation by gas chromatography (GC) are the flame ionization detector (FID) and the thermal conductivity detector (TCD). They are considered general (non-selective) detectors since they respond to virtually all emphasis and future advances will focus on simplification and speed-up of sample preparation methods by process automation and combination of derivatiz-ation with work-up procedures.

See also: N/Chromatography: Gas: Detectors: Mass Spectrometry; Detectors: Selective. III/Acids: Gas Chromatography. Amino Acids: Gas Chromatography.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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