Conclusion

The SARA separation method is at present the most comprehensive and most widely used method for the study of heavy oil fractions. Despite its shortcomings (tedious, time-consuming and possible losses), it can be viewed as a standard by which other methods should be evaluated. Preparative, centrifugal, TLC with the Chromatotron is capable of isolating crude oil and bitumen in the amounts required for further identification by other instrumental techniques.

TLC-FID has a great potential of becoming a standard method for quantitative evaluation of crude oil and bitumen. It is rapid, accurate, requires only small samples and does not involve tedious procedures in comparison to the SARA method. Solvent fractionation using silica gel rods simply separates crude oil and bitumen into four fractions. With automatic instrumentation, the method can be used routinely for industrial purposes. The combination, of fractionation by solvents and ion exchange followed by complexation, is a good method for studying the composition of crude oil and bitumen. Ion exchange processes rely on the great selectivity for acidic and basic components in the crude oil. The complexation process enables the neutral nitrogen compounds to be separated. This scheme provides 10

resin fractions, which demonstrates the great complexity of crude oil composition.

The choice of a procedure primarily depends on the information required. Combining different separation steps and/or short-cuts to achieve a specific purpose is possible.

See also: II/Chromatography: Liquid: Mechanisms: Ion Chromatography. Chromatography: Thin-layer (Planar): Modes of Development: Conventional. III/Crude Oil: Liquid Chromatography. Flame Ionization Detection: Thin-Layer (Planar) Chromatography. Flash Chromatography. Metal Complexes. Petroleum Products: Liquid Chromatography.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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