Conclusion For Liquid Chromatography

Large scale preparative GC is a real purification tool. It is now reliable and economically viable for industrial production. Columns with internal diameter as large as 600 mm are available. The efficiencies

Miscellaneous Power

Miscellaneous Power

Figure 4 Purification cost breakdown for a production of 36 tonnes per year of injected crude on a 400 mm i.d. column. Open segments, investment costs; shaded segments, operating costs.

obtained are between 800 and 1000 plates and the scale of production is between 20 and 200 tonnes per year.

Large scale GC can be used for the industrial production of ultrapure compounds or for the selective removal of impurities. For difficult separations, it is economically competitive with other techniques such as distillation. Whenever it is applicable, it is always competitive with preparative HPLC. Its applications are limited to compounds with normal boiling points under 250°C.

Preparative GC works well with a relatively simple technology; thus, over the last 10 years, technological improvements have been limited to automation in line with modern standards and to maintain simplicity. No major improvement is expected in future, except to adapt the process to specific cases (e.g. ultrapurification of gases for the electronics industry with an impurities level as low as 0.1 p.p.b. and simultaneous separation and reaction in a chromato-graphic column). The number of installations work

P. Marriott, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria,

Australia

Copyright © 2000 Academic Press

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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