Concluding Remarks

CE has proved to be a versatile method for the high efficient separation of complex mixtures of amino








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Figure 7 CZE separation of a peptide mixture. Capillary: ethylene/vinyl acetate dynamically coated with polyvinyl alcohol 75 |im i.d. 25/45 cm, buffer: phosphate 50 mmol L_1; pH = 2.5; E = 155 Vcm_1, 200 nm; injection 50 mbar, 5 s. 1, Bradykinin; 2, angiotensin II 3, a-MSH; 4, TRH; 5, LH-RH; 6, leucin enkephalin; 7, bombesin; 8, methionin; 9, oxytocin.

acids and peptides due to the manifold separation modes that can be applied. Short analysis times, easy manipulation of separation conditions and small injection volumes (nanolitres) are further advantages.

The field of biomedical and clinical amino acid and peptide analysis is still under investigation, especially as the transfer and adaptation of the separation modes to a broader range of real samples has to be established. Thus monitoring of in vivo processes, e.g. analysis of neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid after online microdialysis, could be realized.

This is directly related to further improvements in reproducibility and detection strategies.

The most promising techniques that will fulfil the demands of trace analysis in biological fluids are CE-LIF and CE-MS.

Future trends are micro-fabricated CE devices implementing CE technology on a microchip and multiple capillary arrays allowing simultaneous analysis of up to 96 samples. Thus, a down-scaling of the analytical process and the performance of high throughput analysis could be achieved.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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