Concentration Polarization

Vacuum permeate An alternative method to produce a pressure drop is the use of a vacuum on the membrane permeate. This has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory settings. However, the economics are not favourable for the large scale production of inexpensive components. Nevertheless, vacuum permeate systems may prove viable for small, high value-added systems.

Batch versus continuous Continuous reactor systems are preferred; they require less down time and have higher production rates than batch systems of similar size. However, as previously detailed, if the role of the membrane is to remove a product component, the available partial pressure difference is limited and the process will always be working with a very limited pressure drop that will require very large membrane areas. Batch and semi-batch processes allow the system to develop some limited partial pressure difference before membrane separation is attempted.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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