Complexforming Effect

The use of a complex-forming agent is a traditional technique to improve separability especially in the case of metal ions. To achieve complex-forming equilibria, a constant amount of the complex-forming agent should be supplied continuously to the sample zone. The complexing agent can be supplied as the counterion in the leading electrolyte, as neutral ligand (crown ether and cyclodextrin), or as the terminating ions.

Complex formation is very useful for the separation of metal ions. A typical example of the iso-tachophoretic separation of metal ions utilizing the complex-forming effect was reported for lanthanides, where a-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) was used as the complexing agent. The concentration of the com-plexing agent and the pH of the leading electrolyte should be optimized to obtain a good separation. By adding malonic acid to the main agent HIBA, 15 rare-earth ions (lanthanide and yttrium) were successfully separated as shown in Figure 8.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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