Column Development

Packed-column GC is generally simpler to set up than capillary GC, because of the ability to apply the stationary phase easily to the solid support and modify it appropriately to the particular analysis required. Deactivation of the glass surface can be effected using a suitable silylating reagent to limit the effect of adsorption on the wall of the column. However, the general difficulty in the chromatography lies in absorptivity on the solid support leading to tailing. The adsorption of amines by the support material has been attributed to the presence of free silanol groups on the silica surface participating in hydrogen bonding with the free electron pair of the nitrogen atom of the amine. Simple treatment with KOH reduces the adsorption to a minimum, allowing good peak shape and optimum performance.

Glass and fused silica capillary columns have also been used for the analysis of free amines. The inherent strength and flexibility of fused silica make it easier to use and less fragile than glass capillary columns. Furthermore, fused silica provides a more inert surface for improved performance and less adsorption. The analysis of free amines on packed columns has now largely been replaced by analysis on fused silica capillary columns that are commercially available with a range of stationary phases. The packed and capillary GC columns reported in the past 30 years for amine analysis are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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