## BL

AV " V(t) = bLUgravitational

By recalling the basic properties of the sedimentation process different expressions can be obtained, which contain the density parameter. During the SPLITT fractionation, under a gravitational field, the sample components are subject to two forces: the gravitational force Fg = meff g and the frictional force Ff = fU (meff is the effective mass, and f the friction coefficient). Usually, the stationary state is established very rapidly and the two forces balance each other out and thus:

where Vo is the cell void volume expressed as a product of channel dimensions b, L and w. The dimensionless time parameter to is thus related to D, V, and the channel dimensions by:

Spherical particles In the case of compact spherical particles, by assuming that the particles do not undergo any shrinking or swelling meff = m — mb or meff = Vsps — VsPl, where m is the real mass and mb the buoyant mass while Vs and ps are, respectively, the volume and density of the particle and pl the density of the liquid. More explicitly meff = 1 nd3\Ap\

This equation is used to obtain experimental D values, once td is found. The total procedure requires the following steps: (i) to compute theoretically the concentration profile c(x, L) over the lateral coordinate x at outlet (z = L) by using the Crank-Nicol-son numerical method. In this way, the retrieval of a component at each outlet substream Fa (in i) and Fb (in ii) can be calculated from c(x, L); (ii) to construct a graph of Fa versus td for different V(a)/V ratios; (iii) to determine experimentally the retrieval factor at outlet sub-stream a (Fa) from the relative strength of the detector signal (this value depends on the flow ratio V(a)/V used in the experiment); (iv) to compute the correspondent td value from the graph Fa versus td by finding the correspondence between the experimental and theoretical Fa values; (v) to use eqn [22] to calculate D using the td value, and the geometrical dimensions b, L, w and V.

## Solar Panel Basics

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