Bipolar and Mosaic Membranes

Preparation methods of bipolar ion exchange membranes involve the introduction of cation exchange groups into one side of the membrane and anion exchange groups into the other side. In order to obtain the simplest bipolar membrane a separate cation exchange membrane and an anion exchange membrane can be glued together by using poly(styrene sulfonic) acid as a binder. Other bipolar ion exchange membranes have been prepared by graft polymerization of acrylic acid on one side of the porous polymer membrane and of N-(2-methacryoyloxyethyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride on the other side, after oxygen plasma treatment of the porous membrane. The mosaic membranes are usually prepared by casting a multiblock copolymer composed of styrene, butadiene and vinylbenzyl dimethylamine and the subsequent introduction of cation and anion exchange groups into the polymer.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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