Biologicial Ligands

Just like other affinity separation techniques, affinity membrane technology uses biomolecules as the affinity ligands, thus taking advantage of the specificity of biological recognition. One of the most common applications is the use of immobilized monoclonal antibodies against natural or recombinant proteins as the ligand for immunoaffinity separation. Another important example are membranes with covalently coupled protein A or protein G for im-munoglobulin purification from plasma, serum or cell culture supernatants. Immobilized lectines have been used for the purification of glycoproteins. The use of inhibitors or coenzymes for the purification of enzymes is also possible. Although biomolecules are widely used as ligands for their selectivity, they do have drawbacks. Their poor stability and sometimes high price can make them problematic for use in large scale affinity separation. Drastic conditions are often necessary for elution of the ligate, for example with high affinity antibody-antigen interactions. This can lead to partial inactivation of the molecule to be purified. Ligand denaturation and inactivation, in particular with protein ligands, can occur during regeneration and sterilization of the membrane. Another important issue is the possible leaching of the affinity ligand, leading to a contamination of the final product, which is particularly problematic if the product is to be used in medical applications.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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