Biologically Active Compounds And Xenobiotics Magnetic Affinity Separations

scale. The disadvantage of standard column procedures is the impossibility of such systems to cope with samples containing particulate material so they are not suitable for use in the early stages of the isolation/purification process where suspended solid and fouling components are present. In this case magnetic affinity batch adsorption, applications of magnetically stabilized fiuidized beds or magnetically modified two-phase systems have shown their usefulness.

The basic principle of magnetic affinity separation is very simple. Magnetic carriers bearing an immobilized affinity ligand or magnetic biopolymer particles are mixed with a sample containing target com-pound(s). Samples may be crude cells lysates, whole blood, plasma, urine, cultivation media, water, soil extracts and many others. Following an incubation period when the target compound(s) bind to the magnetic affinity particles, the whole magnetic complex is easily and rapidly removed from the sample using an appropriate magnetic separator. After washing, the isolated target compound(s) can be eluted and used for further work.

Magnetic separation techniques have several advantages in comparison with standard separation procedures. The separation process can be performed directly in crude samples containing suspended solid material. Due to the magnetic properties of the magnetic affinity particles (and the diamagnetic properties of the majority of the contaminating molecules and particles present in the treated sample) they can be relatively easily and selectively removed from the sample. In fact, magnetic separation is the only feasible method for recovery of small magnetic particles (diameter ca. 0.1-1 |im) in the presence of biological debris and other fouling material of similar size. Moreover, the power and efficiency of magnetic separation procedures is especially useful for large-scale operations. The magnetic separation techniques are also the basis of various automated procedures, especially magnetic particle-based immunoassay systems for the determination of a variety of analytes. The basic equipment for laboratory experiments is very simple. Magnetic particles of various types are easily available, as well as magnetic separators. A short description is given below.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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