Bath Systems

In these systems the transducer is usually placed below a stainless steel tank, the base of which is the source of ultrasound (Figure 5). Some tanks are also provided with a thermostatically controlled heater. Typically, the ultrasound power levels delivered by most commercial ultrasonic baths (e.g., 1-5 W cm-2) are sufficient for cleaning, degassing of solvents and extraction of adsorbed metals and organic pollutants from environmental samples, but are less effective for extraction of analytes bound to the matrix. The power should be great enough to cause cavitation within the extraction vessel placed inside the bath; this is not always achieved with commercial ultrasonic baths.

An important factor influencing extraction efficiency is the position of the extraction vessel inside the bath. For a bath with a single transducer on the base, the extraction vessel must be located just above the transducer, since power delivery will be a maximum at this position. In order to obtain reproducible results, the bath must be either thermostatted or preheated at the equilibrium temperature (i.e. maximum temperature measured in the liquid under continuous running conditions) since most cleaning baths warm up slowly during operation. An important drawback of most cleaning baths is the lack of power adjustment control.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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