Approaches to Minimize Concentration Polarization

The primary method of reducing the negative influence of concentration polarization is to maximize the mass-transfer coefficient in the boundary layer. Usually the first method used is to increase the feed velocity. This has the drawbacks of a high feed-to-residue pressure drop and the requirement of long, thin modules, which have higher capital costs than shorter, larger-diameter modules. A more efficient approach is to choose optimized feed-spacer materials and/or to create non-linear feed channels which induce mass-transfer-enhancing vortices. More complicated methods used for a feed mixture with a high viscosity and/or a high membrane fouling potential employ spinning membranes or vibrating modules.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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