The principal advantage of the surface complexation theory lies in the fact that it can be applied to any normal or reaction-coupled ion exchange process for which other theoretical descriptions of equilibria fail.

One field of application is the prediction of multi-species exchange kinetics. This has been demonstrated by Franzreb, who included the description into the solution of the Nernst-Planck equations for several ternary and quaternary cases. The development of systems with strong and weak exchange resins and with normal and reaction-coupled multi-species processes could be predicted with excellent accuracy.

The surface complexation theory can also be easily applied to the simplified prediction of the performance of filters in which the filter is divided into a series of equilibrium stages. By means of the porosity of the filter section the quantities of resin material and liquid phase are known. Consequently, the exchange equilibrium in each stage can be calculated. The effluent composition of the filter is given by the equilibrium in the last stage. By this means and by an appropriate assumption of the number of

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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