Applications of HC

HC is widely used for the separations of particles of very different character, starting from inorganic particles, polymer latexes, and biological cells, to synthetic and natural molecules, oil emulsions, etc. Modern short capillary columns allow substantial reduction in the separation time and an increase in the efficiency and resolution. Although HC was originally developed for the separations of micrometre-sized particles, the size range of applications has recently been lowered to tens of nanometres. The example in Figure 12 shows the chromatogram of three polymer latex size standards separated on an open capillary column. The separation was accomplished in one minute.

Figure 12 Separation of different size polymer latexes by HC.

erated at slow rotational speeds, allowed the separations of relatively small particles. The invention of the ultracentrifuge (which uses extremely high speeds of rotation, allowing a reduction in the size limits of the separated species) and of new coupled detectors, upgraded a simple sedimentation fractionation technique into powerful separation methodology applicable to preparative separations as well as for analytical characterization of particles and macromolecules. The impressive progress in theory, methodology, techniques and applications was of a long-lasting nature, from the 1920s to the 1970s. Thereafter, some stagnation appeared but the beginning of the 1990 represented a renaissance era for analytical and preparative ultracentrifugation and derived techniques.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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