The first successful commercial activity in gas separation by membranes began in 1977 with the introduction of the PrismĀ® membrane system by Monsanto (now Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.), to recover H2 from ammonia synthesis plant purge gas. Installed membrane capacity in 1977 was only 5 MMSCFD (million standard cubic feet per day) and grew to over 3500 MMSCFD by 1996. Approximately two-thirds of current installed membrane capacity is used for H2 separation, which includes ammonia purge gas, refinery and petrochemical applications (Figure 19). Significant growth is expected for N2 and CO2 separations. While the specifics will vary according to application, a generic membrane system will include a compressor if the source gas is not available at pressure and pretreatment to remove condensible, corrosive or reactive components. The partial listing of applications (Table 4) represents established uses for gas separations. Expanding the slate continues to be a focus of membrane manufacturers and research institutes.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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