Static HS-GC relies in general on a thermodyn-amically controlled equilibrium. It is natural therefore that it has been applied not only for analytical purposes, but also for the determination of physico-

Table 2 Selected analytical applications of static headspace gas chromatography

• Residual solvents in pharmaceuticals, food, packing material, aluminium and plastic films

• Monomers in polymer resins, emulsions and finished products

• Ethylene oxide in sterilized clinical material

• Volatile aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons in air, water and soil

• Flavour compounds in beverages and spices

• Odour compounds in foodstuffs, herbs, flowers and perfumes

• Rancidity of fat and oil

• Water content in any type of liquid and solid sample as an alternative to KF titration

• Dithiocarbamates, degraded to CS2, in vegetables, fruits and flowers

• Analysis of beverages for diketones (in beer), sulfur compounds, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and acids

• Ethanol in blood, food and beverages

• Volatile fermentation products from anaerobic bacteria chemical data such as vapour pressures, partition coefficients, activity coefficients and related mixing functions (energies and enthalpies of mixing), adsorption isotherms, and also for kinetic measurements such as the determination of reaction constants and the rate of release of volatile compounds from solid material. Table 2 lists some important analytical applications.

See also: II/Chromatography: Gas: Column Technology; Historical Developments; Sampling Systems; Theory of Gas Chromatography. III/Gas Analysis: Gas Chromatography.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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