Appendix Symbols used

b proportionality constant of eqn [16]

dp mean particle diameter

e

thickness of the layer bed

h

reduced HETP

k

retention factor

kv

velocity constant

l

width of the plate

r

radius of the capillary

t

time

t3

time needed for the solvent to move 10 cm

u

velocity of the solvent front

ub

velocity of the bulk of the solvent

v

rate of vaporization per unit surface area

v'

adsorption rate

xi

migration distance of solute i

zf

distance between the solvent front and the

solvent source

zM

height of capillary ascent

z0

height of liquid in the tank

A, B, C

constants in the Knox equation

A', B', C'

coefficients in the Guiochon equation

D

diffusion coefficient of the solute

Dm

diffusion coefficient of the solute in

mobile phase

Ds

diffusion coefficient of the solute in

the stationary phase

H

plate height

H1

local plate height

K

equilibrium constant

L

migration distance of the solvent or effec-

tive plate length

Ms

molecular weight of the solvent

N

plate number

N'

bed efficiency

Nne

plate number to achieve a given separ-

ation

Pe

permeability

P0

specific permeability (does not depend on

particle size)

P

partial pressure of the solvent

P0

vapour pressure of the solvent

Q

flow rate in the capillary

RF

retention factor in TLC

RF,a

apparent retention factor

RF,t

true retention factor

Rs

Resolution between two consecutive

peaks (or spots)

S

layer surface area

Vi

molar volume of the solute

Vt

total free volume at time t

a

selectivity or relative retention

y

surface tension of the mobile phase

ym, ys

tortuosity coefficients in the mobile (m)

and stationary (s) phases

s

bed porosity

gTj0 bed porosity of the dry adsorbent

&r,( external porosity at time t

APc capillary pressure change y viscosity of the solvent

6 specific velocity constant of the solvent

6' wetting angle v reduced velocity flow of solvent vaporized from the wet part of the bed flow of solvent across the bed cross-section immediately above the solvent level in the tank association constant of a solvent p solvent density

<j\ base width of spot i

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