For determination of amikacin (Figure 1, structure 1), the serum sample is loaded onto the silica gel column, followed by addition of o-phthalaldehyde (a derivatizing reagent). The column is eluted with 95% ethanol (pH 10) and the eluent is heated at 50°C. After cooling, the mixture is injected onto an ODS

ch,oh ch,oh

nh2 (1)


2 ch3 ch3

4 ch3 h

Figure 1 Chemical structures of amikacin (1) and gentamycins C (2), C1a (3) and C2 (4).

column. Mobile phase is methanol-water-aceto-nitrile (65 : 30 : 5) containing 0.2% tripotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Amikacin is detected fluorometrically at 350 nm for excitation and 420 nm for emission. The detection limit is 1 |gmL~\ In order to resolve amikacin from its three isomers, a similar method is used except that the mobile phase is methanol-water (7:3). Tobramycin may be analysed with the same method.

Pre-column derivatization of amikacin is also conducted by addition of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene to plasma or urine, leading to formation of a stable chromophore, which can be detected at 360 nm. An ODS column is used with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (68 : 32). The detection limit is 1 |gmL~\ Amikacin may be extracted from serum using a cation exchange solid-phase extraction column prior to derivatization.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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