Lf qF AVf 1 q F

y iL

y iL

Figure 4 Combining the VLE and the operating line to compute mole fractions in a section of equilibrium stages.

does not apply since it relates the thermodynamic degree of freedom inside a single equilibrium stage.

This implies that if we know, for example, the reflux (Lt) and vapour (VB) flow rate into the column, all states on all stages and in both products are completely determined.

External and Internal Flows

The overall mass balance and component mass balance is given by:

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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