Activation and Ligand Coupling

From a practical point of view, apart from the chemical compatibility of the membrane material with the activation and coupling solutions, an important

Table 1 Membrane materials and possible chemistries for ligand coupling

Membrane material

Coupling chemistries

Ligand functional group

Cellulose, cellulose diacetate

Epichlorohydrin, butanediol diglycidyl ether

Amino, (hydroxyl)

Carbonyldiimidazole

Amino, hydroxyl

CNBr

Amino

Anhydride

Amino

Hydrazide

Amino

Polysulfone

Acrylation-amination, chloromethylation-amination

Cr (aromatic)

Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether

Amino, (hydroxyl)

Polyamide

Glutaraldehyde (Schiff base)

Amino, amido

Divinyl sulfone

Hydroxyl

2-Fluoro-1-methylpyridinium toluene-4-sulfonate

Primary amino

Butanediol diglycidyl ether

Amino, (hydroxyl)

Formaldehyde

Hydroxyl

Poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol)

Epichlorohydrin, butanediol diglycidyl ether

Amino, (hydroxyl)

Electrostatically spun poly(ether-urethane-urea)

Carbonyldiimidazole

Amino, hydroxyl

CNBr

Amino

Carbonyldiimidazole

Amino, hydroxyl

Glass

Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane

Amino, (hydroxyl)

Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

Carboxyl

aspect is that these solutions need to access the pores of the membrane. In many cases it will therefore be necessary to do the activation in dynamic mode, that is, by forced convection. This is especially important if the membrane material is hydrophilic and the activation and coupling solutions are based on nonpolar solvents, since in that case the wettability of the membrane by the solutions will be low.

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