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obtain smoothly grown crystals at a values of 0.001 to 0.01, while for slightly soluble substances growth rates of 10 ~ 9 to 10~8ms~1 are commonly encountered at a values of 10-100. Their corresponding mean sizes vary from 600 |im to 10 |im respectively.

Growth rate dispersion Small crystals, regardless whether they are born by primary or secondary nu-cleation, grow slower than their parent crystals. This is attributed to a certain content of stress in the small crystals. During the growth of the nuclei, the outer layers of the crystals lose some of the stress - a process called healing. Although the stress content of individual small crystals of the same size can differ, and thus their growth rate - a phenomenon named growth rate dispersion - the overall effect of stress on the growth rate of a large number of small crystals can equally be described by a size-dependent growth function. The equilibrium concentration then becomes a size-dependent function analogous to eqn [56].

The dependency of _Rlin on a is first order, and _Rlin is directly related to the solubility. It always limits the maximal growth rate by which a crystal can grow at a given supersaturation in Figure 8.

Volume diffusion and surface integration controlled growth For combined volume diffusion and rough growth as growth rate-determining steps, the growth process can be described by:

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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