8hx

where C1=fhv0a2 and s(hx)|atom-slab is the potential energy of interaction in ergs/molecule at a separation distance hx (cm), N0 is the Avogadro number (6.02 x 1023 molecules/g mol wt) for water from

For a condensed system involving different phases the potential energy of interaction is still given by eqn [6] but with a modified Hamaker constant.

Consider a particle, 1, and an adjacent bubble, 2, in a water medium, 3. The particle and the bubble surfaces will be associated with water molecules. In the simplest case the film on the particle will consist of OH" ions as well as molecular water dipoles and will be of the order of a monolayer in thickness,

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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