1

1 Xwf 1 Xw

dL XD # XDXw(a — 1) — aXw dV (xd — Xw)[1+Xw(a — 1)]

Under the constraint of constant relative volatility the equilibrium relation becomes:

Substitution of [36] into the general expression for the vapour requirement (eqn [20]) and integration leads to the vapour requirement equation when the column is operated at constant distillate composition and variable reflux:

If one takes advantage of eqns [30] and [31], analytical forms for the cumulative distillate production and remaining charge left in the feed still can be derived for the cases of either constant reflux ratio or constant distillate composition operation.

For constant reflux ratio, eqn [15] can be integrated to the expression for the total vapour requirement:

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Solar Panel Basics

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