The target is to approach perfection in a zero-risk society. Basically, no product is without risk; failure to recognize this factor may put excessive emphasis on achieving an important goal while drawing precious resources away from product design development and approval. The target or goal should be to attain a proper balance between risk and benefit using realistic factors and not the "public-political panic" approach.

Achievable program plans begin with the recognition that smooth does not mean perfect. Perfection is an unrealistic ideal. It is a fact of life that the further someone is removed from a task, the more they are apt to expect so-called perfection from those performing it. The expectation of perfection blocks genuine communication between designers, workers, departments, management, customers, vendors, and laws (lawyers). Therefore one can define a smoothly run program as one that designs or creates a product that meets requirements, is delivered on dme, falls within the price guidelines, and stays close to budget.

Perfecdon is never reached; there is always room for improvements as summarized in the FALLO approach (Fig. 1.15) and throughout history. As it has been stated, to live is to change and to reach perfecdon is to have changed often (in the right direction). Perfection is like stadng that no one on "earth" is without sin.

In addition to the product the designer, equipment installer, user, and all others involved in production should all consider performing a risk assessment and target in the direction of perfection. The production is reviewed for hazards created by each part of the line when operating as well as when equipment fails to perform or complete its task. This action includes startups and shutdowns, preventative maintenance, QC/inspection, repair, etc.

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