Contents

Preface, Acknowledgement xiii

About the Authors xvii

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW 1

Introduction 1

Materials of construction 5

Thermoplastics 10

Crystalline & Amorphous Polymers 11

Liquid Crystalline Polymers 12

Thermosets 13

Crosslin ked Thermoplastics 15

Reinforced Plastics 15

Thermal Expansions 17

Ductilities 17

Toughness 18

Tolerances/Shrinkages 18

Compounds 18

Prepregs 19

Sheet Molding Compounds 19

Bulk Molding Compounds 19

Commodity & Engineering Plastics 20

Elastomers/Rubbers 20

Plastic behaviors 21 Morphology/Molecular Structure/Mechanical

Property 22

Densities 22

Molecular Weights 23

Molecular Weight Distributions 23

Viscosities and Melt Flows 23

Newtonian/non-Newtonian 24

Melt Index 24

Rheology & Mechanical Analysis 25

Viscoelasticities 26

Processing-to-Performance Interface 26

Glass Transition Temperatures 26

Melt Temperatures 28

Processing and Moisture 29

Drying Operations 30

Fabricating processes 31

Extrusions 33

Orientations 34

Postformings 34

Coextrusions 34

Injection Moldings 35

Coinjections 35

Gas-Assist Moldings 36

Micromoldings 37

Blow Moldings 37 Complex Consolidated Structural Products 38

Thermoformings 39

Foams 40

Reinforced Plastics 40

Calenders 41

Castings 41

Coatings 42

Compression Moldings 42

Reaction Injection Moldings 42

Rotational Moldings 43

Variables 44

FALLO approach 44

Chapter 2 DESIGN OPTIMIZATION 46

Introduction 46

Terminology 46

Engineering Optimization 57

Design Foundation 58

Problem/Solution Concept 61

Design Approach 62

Model Less Cosdy 62

Model Type 63

Computer Software 64

Design Analysis Approach 64

Viscoelasticity 65

Polymer Structure Viscoelasticity Behavior

Relaxation/Creep Analysis Summary Viscosity

Rheology and mechanical properties

Hooke's Law Static stress

Tensile Stress-Strain

Modulus of Elasticity Flexural Stress-Strain Compressive Stress-Strain Shear Stress-Strain

Torsion Stress-Strain Direct Load Shear Strength Residual Stress Dynamic stress

Dynamic/Static Mechanical Behavior Energy and Motion Control Isolator Torsion Load Rapid loading Impact Impulse Puncture Friction Erosion

Hydrostatic Cavitation Rain High performance Reinforced Plastic Orientation of Reinforcement

Orientation Terms Basic Design Theory Fiber Strength Theory Fiber Geometry on Strength Stiffness-Viscoelasticity

Creep and Stress Relaxation Conceptual design approach Design Analysis Pseudo-Elastic Method Theory of Combined Action

Overview 135

Stress-Strain Analysis 136

Plain Reinforced Plates 139

Composite Plates 144

Bending of Beams and Plates 151

Structural Sandwiches 154

Stiffness 154

Stresses in Sandwich Beams 155

Axially-Loaded Sandwich 156 Filament-Wound Shells, Internal Hydrostatic

Pressure 157

Basic Equations 157

Weight of Fiber 158

Minimum Weight 159

Isotensoid Design 159

Geodesic-Isotensoid Design 159

Chapter 3 DESIGN PARAMETER 161

Load determination 161

Design analysis process 165

Reinforced Plastic Analysis 167

Stress Analysis 168

Stress-strain behavior 170

Rigidity (EI) 170

Hysteresis Effect 171

Poisson's Ratio 172

Brittleness 173

Ductile 174

Crazing 174

Stress Whitening 177

Combined stresses 177

Surface Stresses and Deformations 178

Creep 180

Fatigue 189

Reinforcement performance 195

Chapter 4 PRODUCT DESIGN 198

Introduction 198

Reinforced Plastic 200

Monocoque Structure 202

Geometric shape 202

Modulus of Elasticity 203

EI theory 203

Plate

Folded Plate Beam Rib

Plastic

Reinforced/Foamed Plastic Column

Euler's Formula Torsion Sandwich

Design Gear

Contact Stress Bearing

PV Factor Grommet Gasket Shape

Overview

Filament Wound Shape Netting Analysis Cylinder Sphere Tank

Fabricating RP Tank Underground Storage Tank Hopper Rail Car Tank Highway Tank Very Large Tank Corrosive Resistant Tank

Pipe

Thermoplastic Pipe RP Pipe Spring

Leaf Spring

Special Spring Cantilever Spring Torsional Beam Spring Hinge Press fit Snap fit Tape

Packaging

Permeability Cushioning Building

House of the Future House Top Transportation Automobile Truck Aircraft

Marine Application Boat

Underwater Hull Missile and Rocket Electrical/Electronic

Shielding Electrical Device Radome Medical

Surgical Product Dental Product Health Care Recreation Appliance Furniture Water filter Lumber Metal

Metal Replacement with Plastic Performance Behavior Moisture Effect

Long Term vs. Short Term Loading Stress Concentration Coefficient of Expansion Bolt Torque Effect Impact Barrier Vehicle Oil Pan Attachment Design limitation and constraint

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN

Technology overview Computers and people Geometric modeling Design accuracy and efficiency

Input/output device

Central Process Unit Software

Programs

Database/General Information Supply Chain Software Finite element analysis Application Designing Graphics

Structural Analysis Software Analysis Synthesizing design CAD special use Optimization CAD Prototyping Rapid Prototyping CAD standard and translator Data sharing

Engineered personal computer CAD editing CIM changing Computer-based training IBM advances computer Artificial intelligence Plastic Toys-Smart computer Computer devices via DNA Design via internet

PLASTIC PERFORMANCE

Overview

Influencing Factor Selecting plastic Comparison Worksheet Temperature

Thermal Property

Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion/Contraction Hyperenvironment Flammability

Steel and Plastic Test

Smoke Electrical/Electronic Corrosion resistance Chemical resistance Friction Tolerance Limit

Processing Effect Recycled plastic

Engineering data information source Publication

Thomas Register Industry Societies Encyclopedia and Industrial Books Standards

Engineering Information Information Broker Engineering Societies and Associations Designs Databases Websites Training programs

DESIGN RELIABILITY

Testing

Classifying Test Laboratory Quality control

Quality and Reliability Total Quality Management Quality and Design Statistics

Testing, QC, statistics, and people Product failure

Spectrum Loading and Cumulative Damage Crack Growth and Fracture Mechanics Fatigue and Stress Concentration Fatigue Loading and Laboratory Testing Predicting Long Time Reliability Meaning of data Safety factor

Safety Factor Example

Chapter 8 SUMMARY 464

Overview 464

Market Size 465

Customer 466

Constraint 466

Responsibility 467 Responsibility Commensurate with Ability 467

Risk 468

Acceptable Risk 468

Predicting Performance 469

Design Verification 470

Perfection 470

Ethics 471

Ergonomic 471

Costing 472

Technical Cost Modeling 473

Engineering and law interface 474

Plastic material 476

Design demand 477

Plastic success 478

Future 479

Appendix A ABBREVIATIONS 480

Appendix B GLOSSARY 493

Appendix C TRADENAMES 547

BIBLIOGRAPHY 555

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