Acknowledgement

The proliferation of plastic products in all aspects of modern society continues unabated. New products are more demanding in their applications and require a higher level of design that addresses both mechanical design aspects for product performance as well as the plastic engineering aspects of design for manufacturing. A cross-fertilization of these two disciplines is required to address both aspects. This book will address the analytical approach for traditional mechanical design within the mechanical engineering field, and at the same time, point out behavior and constraints that arise because of specific plastic material, plastic processing and plastic product design limitations that would reduce part quality or process efficiency.

Using the first principles of physics and mechanics, as well as plastic material behaviors and properties that are time and temperature dependent, design problems will be illustrated showing the loading analysis for static and dynamic conditions. Engineering practices that extend material behavior from the simple application of Hooke's Law to short and long term loading as a function of time, temperature, and environmental conditions such as humidity. Application of superposition will be illustrated to accomplish this task. Problems will also consider applications such as for static and dynamic loads in different situations. In each case the underlying assumptions of the problem analysis are given. Basic principles point out the underlying fundamentals, while more advanced mathematical, analytical, or computer based techniques of interpretation highlight the value of refined analysis, if warranted by economic benefits.

True insight into the field of plastics product design will be gained from the dual approach that has been outlined and the use of appropriate laws of physics, mechanics, and material science. For the mechanical engineer the book will be a valuable asset because it treats plastic material selection for end use applications where factors such as thermal, chemical, electrical, optical, and environmental properties are important. The mechanical engineer will also gain an understanding of the manufacturing constraints imposed by mold and die designs as well as the processes used to manufacture plastic products. The plastic engineer will gain a better understanding of the principles of stress analysis, failure modes in structures, and the use of computer based finite element methods for in depth stress and deformation calculations. This book will provide the means that both can expand their expertise from the synergistic effect of combining both disciplines.

This book will provide many fundamentals with their required details so that the reader can become familiar and put to use the different design approaches. Reviews relate to fabricating over 35,000 plastics available worldwide to produce the many millions of different products diat are used worldwide.

Information is concise and comprehensive. Engineering and nonengineering principles reviewed have been in use worldwide and are published in many different forms that are included in the bibliography. The book also lists commercial software sources as well as material databases. The reader, with or without design or engineering experience, can understand these principles. It will be invaluable to the most experienced designers or engineers, as well as providing a firm basis for the novice. It meets the designer's goal that is essentially an exercise in predicting product performances.

Its unique approach will expand and enhance your knowledge of plastic technology. Plastic ranges of behavior are presented to enhance one's capability in fabricating products to meet different performances, low cost requirements, and profits. Important basic concepts are presented such as understanding the advantages of different materials and product shapes. This full presentation provides the background needed to understand performance analysis and the design methods useful to the designer. It provides an important tool for approaching the target "get-to-market-right-the-first-time."

Patents or trademarks may cover information presented. No authorization to utilize these patents or trademarks is given or implied; they are discussed for information purposes only. The use of general descriptive names, proprietary names, trade names, commercial designations, or the like does not in any way imply that they may be used freely.

A practical approach was used to obtain the information contained in this book. While information presented represents useful information

Preface, acknowledgement xv that can be studied or analyzed and is believed to be true and accurate, neither the authors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors, omissions, inaccuracies, or other factors. The authors and contributors have taken their best effort to represent the contents of this book correctly.

In preparing this book to ensure its completeness and the correctness of the subjects reviewed, use was made of the authors' worldwide personal, industrial, and teaching experiences totaling about a century. Use was also made of worldwide information from industry (personal contacts, material and equipment suppliers, conferences, books, articles, etc.) and major trade associations. The authors have taken their best effort to represent the contents of this book correctly.

The Rosatos 2003

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