Abbreviations

acetal (see POM) A ampere AA acrylic acid

AAE American Assoc. of Engineers AAES American Assoc. of

Engineering Societies AAR American Association of Railroads

ABC acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ABR polyacrylate ABS acrylontrile-butadiene-styrene AC alternating current AC cellulose acetate ACES Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid ACS American Chemical Society ACTC Advanced Composite

Technology Consortium ad adhesive

ADC allyl diglycol carbonate (also see CR-39)

AEC Atomic Energy Commission AFCMA Aluminum Foil Container

Manufacturer's Assoc. AFMA American Furniture

Manufacturer's Assoc. AFML Air Force Material Laboratory AFPA American Forest & Paper Assoc.

AFPR Assoc. of Foam Packaging Recyclers

AGMA American Gear Mfgrs. Assoc. AI artificial intelligence

AIA Automated Imaging Assoc. AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronauts AIChE American Institute of

Chemical Engineers AIMCAL Assoc. of Industrial

Metallizers, Coaters & Laminators AISI American Iron and Steel

Institute AMA American Management

Association AMBA American Mold Builders Assoc.

AMC alkyd molding compound AMW average molecular weight AN acrylonitrile

ANSI American National Standards Institute

ANTEC Annual Technical Conference (SPE)

APC American Plastics Council APET amorphous polyethylene terephthalate APF Assoc. of Plastics Fabricators API Alliance for the Polyurethane

Industry API American Paper Institute APM antipersonnel mine APME Assoc. of Plastics

Manufacturers in Europe APPR Assoc. of Post-consumer Plastics Recyclers

AQL acceptable quality level APC American Plastics Council AR aramid fiber AR aspect ratio

AJRP advanced reinforced plastic ASA Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate ASAP as soon as possible ASCII American Standard Code for

Informadon Exchange ASM American Society for Metals ASME American Society of

Mechanical Engineers ASNDT American Society for NonDestructive Testing ASQ American Society for Quality ASQC American Society for Quality

Control Assoc. association

ASTM American Society for Testing

Materials at wt atomic weight atm atmosphere ATR attenuated total reflectance AW areal weight bbl barrel

BDI Biodegradable Products Institute BFRL Building & Fire Research

Laboratory (NIST) Bhn Brinell hardness number BM blow molding BMC bulk molding compound BO biaxially-oriented BOPP biaxially-oriented polypropylene BPI Biodegradable Products Insdtute bp boiling point BR butadiene rubber BR polybutadiene BSI British Standards Institute Btu British thermal unit Buna polybutadiene Butyl butyl rubber

C carbon C Celsius c centi (10~2)

C Centigrade (preference Celsius) C composite C coulomb Ca calcium CA cellulose acetate CAA Clean Air Act CAB cellulose acetate butyrate CaC03 calcium carbonate (lime) CAD computer-aided design CAE computer-aided engineering CAM computer-aided manufacturing CAMPUS computer-aided material preselection by uniform standards CAN cellulose acetate nitrate CAP cellulose acetate propionate CAS Chemical Abstract Service, division of ACS CAS clean air solvent CAT computer-aided testing CBA chemical blowing agent CBT computer-based training CCA cellular cellulose acetate CCV Chrysler composites vehicle CD compact disk (disc) CEM Consorzio Export Mouldex (Italian)

CFA Composites Fabricators Assoc. CFC chlorofluorocarbon CFECA California Film Extruders and Converters Association CFE polychlorotrifluoroethylene CIM computer integrated manufacturing CLTE coefficient of linear thermal expansion cm centimeter CM compression molding CMA Chemical Mfgrs. Assoc. CMRA Chemical Marketing Research Assoc.

CN cellulose nitrate (celluloid) CNC computer numerically controlled CO carbon monoxide CO polyepichlorohydrin CO2 carbon dioxide CP Canadian Plastics

CP cellulose propionate

CPAC Center for Process Analytical

Chemistry CPE chlorinated polyethylene CPET chlorinated polyethylene terephthalate CPI Canadian Plastics Institute cpm cycles/minute CPSC Consumer Products Safety

Commission CPU central processing unit CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CR chloroprene rubber C/R compression rado CR-39 allyl diglycol carbonate CRP carbon reinforced plastics CRT cathode ray tube CS chlorinated solvent CSA Canadian Standard Assoc. CSI control system integration CSM chlorosulfonyl polyethylene CT carbon tetrachloride CTFE chlorotrifluorethylene CV coefficient of variation d denier (preferred DEN) d density

2-D two dimensions

3-D three dimensions D diameter

DAIP diallyl isophthalate DAP diallyl phthalate DAS data acquisition system dB decibel DC direct current den denier

DDR draw-down rado DEHP di-ethylhexyl phthalate DGA differential gravimetric analysis DIN Deutsches Instut, Normung

(German Standards Commission) DINP di-isononyl phthalate DMA dynamic mechanical analysis DMC dough molding compound DN Design News publication DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOD Department of Defense

DOE Department of Energy

DOE Design of Experiments dp dew point dP differendal pressure

DP degree of polymerizadon

DSC differential scanning calorimeter

DSD Duales System Deutschland

(German Recycling System) DSQ German Society for Quality DTA differential thermal analysis DTGA differential thermogravimetric analysis

DTMA dynamic thermomechanical analysis

DTUL deflection temperature under load

DV design value DV devolaulizadon DVD Digital Versatile Disc DVR dimensional velocity research DVR design value resource DVR Dominick Vincent Rosato DVR Donald Vincent Rosato DVR Drew Vincent Rosato DVR Druckverformungsrest (compression set/German) DVR dynamic value research DVR dynamic velocity rado

E elongation

E modulus of elasdeity or Young's modulus Ec modulus, creep (apparent) Er modulus, relaxadon Es modulus, secant EBM extrusion blow molding EC ethyl cellulose EC European Community ECTFE polyethylene-

chlorotrifluoroethylene EDC endocrine-disrupting chemical EDM electrical discharge machining E/E electronic/electrical EEC European Economic

Community EI modulus times moment of inertia (equal stiffness)

EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMI electromagnetic interference EMS environmental management system

EO ethylene oxide (also EtO) EOT ethylene ether polysulfide EP epoxv

EP ethylene-propylene EPA Environmental Protection Agency

EPDM ethylene propylene diene monomer EPE expandable polyethylene EPM ethylene propylene fluorinated EPP expandable polypropylene EPR ethylene propylene rubber EPS expandable polystyrene ERP enterprise resource planning ESC environmental stress cracking ESCR environmental stress cracking resistance ESD electrostatic safe discharge ET ethylene polysulfide ETFE ethylene terafluoroethylene ETO ethylene oxide EU entropy unit EU European Union EUPC European Assoc. of Plastics

Converters EUPE European Union of Packaging

& Environment Euro European currency EURO MAP European Committee of Machine Manufacturers for the Rubber & Plastics Industries (Zurich, Switzerland) EVA ethylene-vinyl acetate E/VAC ethylcne/vinyl acetate copolymer EVAL ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (tradename for EVOH) EVE ethylene vinyl ether EVOH ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (or EVAL) EX extrusion

F coefficient of friction

F Fahrenheit F Farad F force

FALLO Follow ALL Opportunities FBF Film and Bag Federation of SPI FC fuzzy control FDA finite difference analysis FDA Food & Drug Administration FEA finite element analysis FEP fluorinated ethylene-propylene FFS form, fill, & seal FLC fuzzy logic control FMCT fusible metal core technology FPC flexible printed circuit fpm feet per minute FR flame retardant FRCA Fire Retardant Chemicals Assoc.

FRP fiber reinforced plastic FRTP fiber reinforced thermoplastic FRTS fiber reinforced thermoset FS factor of safety FS fluorosilicone ft feet

FTIR Fourier transformation infrared FV frictional force X velocity g gram G giga (106) G gravity

G shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) G torsional modulus GAIM gas assisted injection molding gal gallon

GB gigabyte (billion bytes) GC gas chromatography GD&T geometric dimensioning &

tolerancing GDP Gross Domestic Product GF glass fiber

GFRP glass fiber reinforced plastic gpm gallons per minute

GMP good manufacturing practice

(see QSR) GMT glass mat reinforced thermoplastic

GNP gross national product (GDP replaced GNP in US 1993 following rest of world) GOR grill opening reinforcement GP general purpose GPa giga Pascal

GPC gel permeation chromatography gpd grams per denier

GPEC Global Plastics Environmental

Conference GPPS general purpose polystyrene gr grain

GR-S polybutadiene-styrene GRP glass reinforced plastic GSC gas solid chromatography GWP global warming potential h hour H enthalpy H hysteresis H2 hydrogen HA hydroxyaparite HAF high abrasion furnace HAP hazardous air pollutant HB Brinell hardness number HBSE Hazard-Based Safety

Engineering HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HC1 hydrogen chloridc HDBK handbook HDPE high density polyethylene

(PE-HD) HDT heat deflection temperature HIC Household and Industrial chemicals HIPS high impact polystyrene HMC high strength molding compound HMI human machine interface HMW-HDPE high molecular weight-

high density polyethylene H2O water H-P Hagen-Poiseuille HPLC high pressure liquid chrom atography HPM hot pressure molding HRC hardness Rockwell C (C scale)

HTS high temperature superconductor hyg hygroscope Hz Hertz (cycles)

I integral

I moment of inertia

IB isobutylene

IBC internal bubble cooling

IBM injection blow molding

IBM International Business Machines

IC Industrial Computing publication

ICM injection-compression molding

ID internal diameter

IEC International Electrochemical

Commission IEEE Institute of electrical &

Electronics Engineers IGA isothermal gravimetric analysis IGC inverse gas chromatography HE Institute of Industrial Engineers IIR isobutene-isoprene IKV Institute for Plastics Processing,

Aachen, Germany in. inch

InTech Instrumentation, Systems, and

Automation Society publication ipm inch per minute LM injection molding IMM injection molding machine IMPS impact polystyrene in. inch

InTech ISA publication I/O input/output IOM Institute of Medicine ips inch per second IR infrared

IR synthetic polyisoprene (synthetic natural rubber) ISA Instrumentation, Systems, &

Automation ISO International Standardization Organization or International Organization for Standardization ISSN International Standard Serial

Number IT information technology

IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IV intrinsic viscosity TVD in vitro diagnostic

I joule

Ip polar moment of inertia

IIS lapanese Industrial Standard

IIT just-in-timc

IIT just-in-tolerance

ISR lapanese SBR

ISW lapan Steel Works

IUSE lapanese Union of Science &

Engineering JWTE lapan Weathering Test Center k kilo (prefix for 106) K bulk modulus of elasticity K coefficient of thermal conductivity K Kelvin

K Kunststoffe (plastic in German) KB kilobyte (1000 bytes) kc kilocycle kg kilogram

KISS keep it short & simple KISS keep it simple & safe KISS keep it simple stupid KK thousand Km kilometer KO knockout kPa kiloPascal ksi thousand pounds per square inch (psi x 103)

1 length

L litre (USA liter) for fluids only lb pound lbf pound-force

LC liquid chromatography

LCD liquid crystal display

LCD lowest common diameter

LCMS liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy LCP liquid crystal polymer L/D length-to-diameter (ratio) LDPE low density polyethylene (PE-LD)

LED light-emitting diode LEP Light-Emitting Polymer LIM liquid impingement molding LIM liquid injection molding liq liquid

LLDPE linear low density polyethylene (also PE-LLD) lm lumen

LMDPE linear medium density polyethylene LNG liquefied natural gas LOI loss on ignition LOX liquid oxygen LPG liquefied petroleum gas LPM low pressure molding LSR liquid silicone rubber m matrix m metallocene (catalyst) m meter mp micromillimeter; millicron;

0.000001 mm mm millimeter ¡am micrometer M mega M million

M[, bending moment MA maleic anhydride MA mass spectroscopy MAD mean absolute deviation MAD molding area diagram MBTS benzothiazyl disulfide M-class Elastomer; see Table B-l MD machine direction MD mean deviation MD&DI Medical Device &

Diagnostic Industry publication MDI methane diisocyanate MDPE medium density polyethylene Me metallocene catalyst MEK methyl ethyl ketone MF melamine formaldehyde mfg manufacturing MFI melt flow index Mfr. manufacturer MFT manufacturers for fair trade mg milligram

[am micrometer mg milligram mHDPE metallocene HDPE

(different m/plastics such as mPS, mPP, etc.) MI melt index mi mile mike microinch (10in.)

MIM metal powder injection molding min minimum min minute

MIPS medium impact polystyrene MIT Massachusetts Institute of

Technology ml milliliter mLLDPE metallocene catalyst

LLDPE MM billion

MMP multimaterial molding or multimaterial multiprocess MO molecular orientation MP Modern Plastics publication MPa mega-Pascal (106 Pascal) mPE metallocene polyethylene MRPMA Malaysian Rubber Products

Manufacturers' Assoc. Msi million pounds per square inch

(psi x 106) MSW municipal solid waste MVD molding volume diagram MVT moisture vapor transmission MM billion MW molecular weight MWD molecular weight distribution MWR molding with rotation

N Nano (10~9) N Newton (force) N number of cycles N2 nitrogen

NACE National Assoc. of Corrosion

Engineers NACO National Assoc. of

CAD/CAM Operation NAGS North America Geosynthetics Society

NAM National Assoc. of

Manufacturers NAS National Academies of Science NASA National Aeronautics Space

Administration NBR butadiene acrylontrile NBS National Bureau of Standards (since 1980s renamed National Institute Standards & Technology or NIST) NC numerical control NCP National Certification in Plastics NDE nondestructive evaluation NDI nondestructive inspection NDT nondestructive testing NEAT Nothing Else Added To it NEMA National Electrical

Manufacturers Assoc. NEN Dutch standard NeSSI new sampling/sensor initiative NFPA National Fire Protection Assoc.

NISO National Information

Standards Organization NIST National Institute of Standards

& Technology nm nanometer NMMA National Marine

Manufacturers Assoc. NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NOS not otherwise specified NPCM National Plastics Center &

Museum NPE National Plastics Exhibition (SPI)

NPJh'C National Publications & Forms

Center (USA gov't) NR natural rubber (polyisoprene) NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing

Laboratory NSC National Safety Council NST National Safety Council NTMA National Tool & Machining Assoc.

NWPCA National Wooden Pallet &

Container Assoc. nylon (see PA)

ASTM D 1418 elastomer terminology

The ASTM standardized terminology system classifying all forms of elastomeric materials based upon the chemical composition of the polymer's backbone chain.

The "M" Class

These elastomers have saturated main polymer chains and are usually prepared from ethylene or vinyl type monomers containing one double band.

CM CFM CS M EPDM

EPM FKM

Copolymers of an aerylate and a small amount of other monomer which provides vulcanizability Copolymers f an aerylate and acrylonitrile Chloro-polyethylene Polychloro-trifluoro-ethylene Chloro-sulfonly-polyethylene Terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and a nonconjugated diene which results In pendant unsaturation (not in the main chain)

Copolymers of ethylene and propylene A polymer with a saturated main chain with substituents of fluorine, perfluoroalkyl, or perfluouroalkoxy

The "O" Class

These elastomers have oxygen in the main chain.

CO Polyepichlorohydrin

ECO Copolymer of ethylene oxide and epichlorohydrin GPO Copolymer of propylene oxide and allyl glycidyl ether

The "R" Class

These elastomers contain unsaturation in the main chain. The letter immediately before the "R" designates the conjugated diene which is used in its synthesis (except natural rubber.)

ABR Copolymer of aerylate and butadiene BIIR Copolymer of bromoisobutene and isoprene BR Polybutadiene

CI IR Copolymer of chloroisobutene and isoprene CR Polyehloroprene IIR Copolymer of isobutene and isoprene IR Polyisoprene (synthetic only) NBR Copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene NCR Copolymer of acrylonitrile and ehloroprene

NIR Copolymer of acrylonitrile and isoprene NR Natural Rubber (poly-cis-isoprene) PBR Copolymer of vinyl pyridine and butadiene

PSBR Copolymer of vinyl pyridine, styrene and butadiene

SBR Copolymer of styrene and butadiene SCR Copolymer of styrene and ehloroprene SIR Copolymer of styrene and isoprene X Prefix indicated carboxyl substitution

The "Q" Class

These elastomers have silicone in the main chain. Prefixes indicate the following types of substitution:

methyl vinyl phenyl fluorine

The "U" Class

Elastomers with carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the main chain - typically polyurethanes:

AU - Polyester based polurethanes EU - Polyether based polurethanes

"Y" Designation

The "Y" prefix indicates a thermoplastic rubber which requires no vulcanization

02 oxygen

03 ozone

OCF Owens Corning Fiereglas OD outside diameter OEM original equipment manufacturer OPET oriented polyethylene terephthalate OPS oriented polystyrene OSHA Occupational Safety & Health

Administration oz ounce

%vol percentage by volume (prefer vol%)

%wt pcrccntage by weight (prefer wt%)

p pico (prefix for 10 12) P load P poise P pressure Pa Pascal

PA polyamide (nylon) PA 6 polyamide 6 (nylon 6) PAA polyaryl amide PAI polyamide-imidc PAN polyacrylonitrile PB polybutylene PBA physical blowing agent PBI polybenzimidazole PBNA phenyl-¿naphthylamine PBT polybutylene terephthalate PC permeability coefficient PC personal computer PC plastic composite PC plastic compounding PC plastic-concrete PC polycarbonate PC printed circuit PC process control PC programmable circuit PC programmable controller PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PCB printed circuit board PCE perchloroethene PCR post-consumer resin pcf pounds per cubic foot

PCFC polychlorofluorocarbon PCTFE polychlorotrifluoroethylene PDFM Plastics Distributors &

Fabricators Magazine PDL Plastics Design Library publication PE plastic engineer PE Plastics Engineering Magazine PE polyethylene (UK polythene) PE professional engineer PECTFE Polyethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene PEEK polyetheretherketone PEEL polyether ester PEI polyetherimide PEK polyether ketone PEKK polyether ketone ketone PEN polyethylene naphthalate PES polyether sulfone PET polyethylene terephthalate PETG polyethylene terephthalate glycol

PEX polyethylene crosslinked (see

XLPE) PF phenol formaldehyde PFA perfluoroalkoxy (copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene & perfluorovinylethers) PFBA polyperfluorobutyl acrylate PHF Plastics Hall of Fame phr parts per hundred of rubber pi 7t= 3.141593 PI polyimide

PIA Plastics Institute of America PID proportional-integral-differential control

PIM powder injection molding PLASTEC Plastics Technical

Evaluation Center (US Army) PLC programmable logic controller pLED polymeric light-emitting diode

PLTA Plastics Lumber Trade Assoc. PMC polyester molding compound (TS)

PMMA Plastics Molders &

Manufacturers Assoc. (of SME)

PMMA polymethyl methacrylate

(acrylic) PMMI Packaging Machinery

Manufacturers Institute PO polyolefin POE polyolefin elastomer POM polyoxymethylene or polyacetal

(acetal) POSS polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes PP polypropylene PPA polyphthalamide ppb parts per billion PPC polyphthalate carbonate PPE polyphenylene ether pph parts per hundred ppm parts per million ppmv parts per million by volume ppmwt parts per million by weight PPO polyphenylene oxide PPPS polyphenylene sulfide sulphone PPS polyphenylene sulfide PPSF polyphenylsulfone PPSU polyphenylene sulphone PPVC plasticized polyvinyl chloride PR public relation PS polystyrene

PSB polystyrene butadiene rubber

(GR-S, SBR) psf pounds per square foot PS-F polystyrene-foam PSF polysulphone psi pounds per square inch PSI Polymer Search on Internet psia pounds per square inch, absolute psid pounds per square inch, differential psig pounds per square inch, gauge

(above atmospheric pressure) PSU polysulfone

PT Plastics Technology publication PT Plastics Toolbox PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene (or TFE)

PTV pressure-temperature-volume

PUF polyurethane foam

PUR polyurethane (also PU, UP)

P-V pressure-volume (also PV) PV pressure-velocity PVA Polyvinyl alcohol PVAC polyvinyl acetate PVB polyvinyl butyral PVC polyvinyl chloride PVD physical vapor deposition PVDA polyvinylidene acetate PVDC polyvinylidene chloride copolymer PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride PVF polyvinyl fluoride PVP polyvinyl pyrrolidone PVT pressure-volume-temperature

(also P-V-T or pvT) PW Plastics World magazine (1997 became Molding Systems of SME, etc.)

QA quality assurance QC quality control QMC quick mold change QPL qualified products list QSR quality system regulation

R Rankin R Reaumur R Reynold's number R Rockwell (hardness) R2SiO silicon

R&D research & development R&M reliability and maintainability R&R repeatability and reproducibility rad That quantity of ionizing radiation that results in the absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of irradiated material, radome radar dome RAM radar absorbent material RAM random access memory Rapra Rubber & Plastics Research Assoc.

R&R repeatability and reproducibility Rc Rockwell hardness C (Rj Re Reynold's number Ref. reference rf radio frequency

RFI radio frequency interference RH relative humidity RIM reaction injection molding RLM reinforced liquid molding RM rotational molding RMA Rubber Mfgrs. Assoc. RMPP rubber modified polypropylene (PP/EPDM) RMS root mean square ROI return on investment RP rapid prototyping RP reinforced plastic RP Reinforced Plastics publication by

Elsevier, UK RPA Rapid Prototyping Assoc. (of SME)

RPM revolutions per minute RRIM reinforced reaction injection molding RT rapid tooling RT room temperature RTI relative thermal index RTM resin transfer molding RTP reinforced thermoplastic RTS reinforced thermoset RTV room temperature vulcanization RV recreational vehicle Rx radiation curing s second

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAMPE Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering SAN styrene acrylonitrile SB styrene butadiene SBA Small Business Administration SBR styrene-butadiene rubber SBS styrene butadiene styrene SCADA Supervisor control and data acquisition SCT soluble core technology SDM standard deviation measurement SES Standards Engineering Society SF safety factor SF short fiber

SF structural foam s.g. specific gravity (sp. gr.) SGMP statistical good manufacturing practice

SI Systeme International d'Unites (International System of Units) SI silicone

SIC Standard Industrial Classification Si02 silica

Sigma Greek letter a. SMA styrene maleic anhydride SMC sheet molding compound SMCAA Sheet Molding Compound

Automotive Alliance SME Society of Manufacturing

Engineers S-N stress-number of cycles SN synthetic natural rubber SNMP simple network management protocol sp. vol. specific volume SPC statistical process control SPE Society of Plastics Engineers Spec, specification

SPE Society of the Plastics Engineers SPI Society of the Plastics Industry sPS syndiotactic polystyrene sq. square

SQC statistical quality control SRI Standards Research Institute (ASTM)

SRIM structural reaction injection molding S-S stress-strain

STP Special Technical Publication (ASTM)

STP standard temperature & pressure STX stampable reinforced thermoplastic sheet (Azdel tradename) SUV sport utility vehicle syn synthetic t thickness T temperature T time

Tg glass transition temperature

Tm melt temperature

Ts tensile strength

T/C thermocouple

TAC triallylcyanurate

TAPPI Technical Association of the

Pulp & Paper Industry TC thermal conductivity TC A 1,1,1- trichloroethane TCE trichloroethene TCM technical cost modeling TD thermal desorption TD transverse direction TDI toluene diisocyanate TF thermoforming TFE see PTFE TFS thermoform-fill-seal TGA thermogravimetric analysis TGI thermogravimetric index THF tetrahydrofuran three D 3-dimensional (3-D) TIME twin-screw injection molding extruder TIR tooling indicator runout T-LCP thermotropic liquid crystal polymer TM transfer molding TMA thermomechanical analysis TMA Tooling & Manufacturing

Assoc. (formerly TDI) TMA Toy Mfgrs. of America torr A unit of pressure equal to 1/760th of an atmosphere [mm mercury (mm Hg)] TP thermoplastic TPE thermoplastic elastomer TPO thermoplastic olefin elastomer TPP triphenylphosphine TPR thermoplastic rubber TPU thermoplastic polyurethane TPV thermoplastic vulcanízate TPX polymethylpentene TQM Total Quality Management TS thermoset TS twin-screw TSC thermal stress cracking TSE thermoset elastomer

TUV TUV America Inc. (Testing Lab.)

TWA time weighted average two-D 2-dimensional (2-D) TX thixotropic TXM thixotropic metal slurry molding Tx toxic

UA urea, unsaturated UD unidirectional UDC unidirectional composite UF urea formaldehyde UHMWPE ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) UL Underwriters' Laboratory UM University of Massachusetts UN United Nations UP unsaturated polyester (TS

polyester) UPVC unplasticized polyvinyl chloride UR urethane (also PUR, PU) URP unreinforced plastic USA United States of America UV ultraviolet

UVCA ultra-violet-light-curable-cyanoacrylate

V vacuum

V velocity

V volt

VA value analysis var variable VC vent cloth

VCM vinyl chloride monomer VDE German Standard Institute VE vinyl ester VI Vinyl Institute VLDPE very low density polyethylene VOC volatile organic compound VOCC volatile organic compound content vol volume (not volatile) vol% percentage by volume vs. versus w width W watt W wicking

W/D weight-to-displacement volume

(boat hull) WIT water-assist injection molding technology WMMA Wood Machinery Mfgrs. of America

WP&RT World Plastics & Rubber

Technology magazine WPC wood-plastic composite wt% percentage by weight WVT water vapor transmission WWII World War Two WWW World Wide Web WYSIWYG what you see is what you get

X-axis axis in plane used as 0°

reference XL cross-linked

XLPE cross-linked polyethylene (see PEX)

XPS expandable polystyrene XTC glass and PET fibers

Y-axis axis in the plane perpendicular to X-axis YPE yield point elongation

Z-axis axis normal to the plane of the

X-Y axes Z-N Ziegler-Natta Z-twist twisting fiber direction ZZ zigzag

Appendix B

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