36 Targets And Properties Of Batteries

The push for zero-emission vehicles led to numerous research and development initiatives in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The California legislative mandates in the early 1990s led to the formation of the U. S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to oversee the development of power sources for EVs. The USABC established obj ectives focusing on battery development for mid-term (1995 to 1998) and long-term criteria. The purpose of the mid-term criteria was to develop batteries with a reasonable goal, while the long-term criteria were set to develop batteries for EVs, which would be directly competitive with IC engine vehicles (ICEVs). At the advent of the 21st century and following the developments in the 1990s, intermediate commercialization criteria were developed. The maj or obj ectives for the three criteria are summarized in Table 3.4.

The two most developed battery technologies of today are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries. However, these batteries will not be suitable for EVs, because the former store too little energy, while the latter have cost and toxicity problems. The future of the other batteries is difficult to predict, because these are mostly prototypes, where system design and performance data are not always available. The status of the promising batteries described in the previous section is summarized in Table 3.5 from information obtained from recent literature.

TABLE 3.4 USABC Objectives for EV Battery Packs

Parameter

Specific energy (Wh/kg) (C/3 discharge rate)

Energy density (Wh/liter) (C/3 discharge rate)

Power density (W/liter) Recharge time, h (20% 100% SoC) Fast recharge time, min Calendar life, years Life, cycles

Lifetime urban range, miles Operating environment, °C Cost, US$/kWh Efficiency, %

Mid-Term Commercialization Long-Term

80-100

135 150-200 75

150 230 300 150

100,000

<150

200 300 400 200

TABLE 3.5 Properties of EV and HEV Batteries

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