124 1980s AND 1990s

In the 1980s and the 1990s, there were tremendous developments of high-power, high-frequency semiconductor switches, along with the microprocessor revolution, which led to improved power converter design to drive the electric motors efficiently. Also in this period, factors contributed to the development of magnetic bearings used in flywheel energy storage systems, although these are not

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<10 h <10 h utilized in mainstream EV development proj ects.

In the last 2 decades, legislative mandates pushed the cause for zero-emission vehicles. Legislation passed by the California Air Resources Board in 1990 stated that by 1998 2% of vehicles should be zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) for each automotive company selling more than 35,000 vehicles. The percentages were to increase to 5% by 2001 and to 10% by 2003. The legislation provided a tremendous impetus to develop EVs by the maj or automotive manufacturers. The legislation was relaxed somewhat later due to practical limitations and the inability of the manufacturers to meet the 1998 and 2001 requirements. The mandate now stands that 4% of all vehicles sold should be ZEV by 2003, and an additional 6% of the sales must be made up of ZEVs and partial ZEVs, which would require GM to sell about 14,000 EVs in California.

Motivated by the pollution concern and potential energy crisis, government agencies, federal laboratories, and the maj or automotive manufacturers launched a number of initiatives to push for ZEVs. The partnership for next-generation vehicles (PNGV) is such an initiative (established in 1993), which is a partnership of federal laboratories and automotive industries to promote and develop electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The most recent initiative by the DOE and the automotive industries is the Freedom CAR initiative.

The trends in EV developments in recent years can be attributed to the following:

• High level of activity exists at the major automotive manufacturers.

• New independent manufacturers bring vigor.

• New prototypes are even better.

• High levels of activity overseas exist.

• There are high levels of hybrid vehicle activity.

• A boom in individual ICEV to EV conversions is ongoing.

• The fuel cell shows great promise in solving the battery range problem.

The case studies of two GM EVs of the 1990s are given below:

1. GM Impact 3 (1993 completed):

a. Based on 1990 Impact displayed at the Los Angeles auto show b. Two-passenger, two-door coupe, street legal and safe c. Initially, 12 built for testing; 50 built by 1995 to be evaluated by 1000 potential customers d. System and characteristics:

i. Motor—one, three-phase induction motor; 137 hp; 12,000 rev/m ii. Battery pack—lead-acid (26), 12 V batteries connected in series (312 V), 869 lb iii. Motor drive—DC-to-AC inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs)

iv. Top speed—75 mph v. Range—90 miles on highway vi. Acceleration—0 to 60 miles in 8.5 s vii. Vehicle weight—2900 lb e. This vehicle was used as a test bed for mass production of EVs.

2. Saturn EVl a. Commercially available electric vehicle made by GM in 1995.

b. Leased in California and Arizona for a total cost of about $30,000.

c. System and characteristics:

i. Motor—one, three-phase induction motor ii. Battery pack—lead-acid batteries iii. Motor drive—DC-to-AC inverter using IGBTs iv. Top speed—75 mph v. Range—90 miles on highway, 70 miles in city vi. Acceleration—0 to 60 mi in 8.5 s d. Power consumption:

i. 30 kW-h/100 mi in city, 25 kW-h/100 mi on highway e. This vehicle was also used as a test bed for mass production of EVs.

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