11 Ev System

An EV has the following two features:

1. The energy source is portable and chemical or electromechanical in nature.

2. Traction effort is supplied only by an electric motor.

Figure 1.1 shows an EV system driven by a portable energy source. The electromechanical energy conversion linkage system between the vehicle energy source and the wheels is the drivetrain of the vehicle. The drivetrain has electrical as well as mechanical components.


The primary components of an EV system are the motor, controller, power source, and transmission. The detailed structure of an EV system and the interaction among its various components are shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2 also shows the choices available for each of the subsystem level components. Electrochemical batteries have been the traditional source of energy in EVs. Lead-acid batteries have been the primary choice, because of their well-developed technology and lower cost, although promising new battery technologies are being tested in many prototype vehicles. The batteries need a charger to restore the stored energy level once its available energy is near depletion due to usage. Alternative energy sources are also being developed for zero-emission vehicles. The limited range problem of battery-driven EVs prompted the search for alternative energy sources, such as fuel cells and flywheels. Prototypes have been developed with fuel cells, while production vehicles will emerge in the near future.

The maj ority of electric vehicles developed so far are based on DC machines, induction machines, or permanent magnet machines. The disadvantages of DC machines pushed EV developers to look into various types of AC machines. The maintenance-free, low-cost induction machines became an attractive alternative to many developers. However, high-speed operation of induction machines is only possible with a penalty in size and weight. Excellent performance together with

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FIGURE 1.2 Major electrical components and choices for an EV system.

high-power density features of permanent magnet machines make them an attractive solution for EV applications, although the cost of permanent magnets can become prohibitive. High-power density and a potentially low production cost of switched reluctance machines make them ideally suited for EV applications. However, the acoustic noise problem has so far been a deterrent for the use of switched reluctance machines in EVs. The electric motor design includes not only electromagnetic aspects of the machine but also thermal and mechanical considerations. The motor design tasks of today are supported by finite element studies and various computer-aided design tools, making the design process highly efficient.

The electric motor is driven by a power-electronics-based power-processing unit that converts the fixed DC voltage available from the source into a variable voltage, variable frequency source controlled to maintain the desired operating point of the vehicle. The power electronics circuit comprised of power semiconductor devices saw tremendous development over the past 3 decades. The enabling technology of power electronics is a key driving force in developing efficient and high-performance power-train units for EVs. High-power devices in compact packaging are available today, enabling the development of lightweight and efficient power-processing units known as power electronic motor drives. Advances in power solid state devices and very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology are responsible for the development of efficient and compact power electronics circuits. The developments in high-speed digital signal processors or microprocessors enable complex control algorithm implementation with a high degree of accuracy. The controller includes algorithms for the motor drive in the inner loop as well as system-level control in the outer loop.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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