622justifying Hybrid Drive

Studies carried out at the General Research Corporation in California, where legislation on zero emission vehicles is hotly contested, have shown that the 160 km range electric car could electrify some 80% of urban travel based on the average range requirements of city households, (a). It is unlikely, however, that a driver would take trips such that the full range of electric cars could be totally used before switching to the IC engine car for the remainder of the day's travel. This does not arise with a hybrid car whose entire electric range could be utilized before switching and it has been estimated that with similar electric range such a vehicle would cover 96% of urban travel requirements. In two or more car households, the second (and more) car could meet 100% of urban demand, if of the hybrid drive type.

Because of the system complexities of hybrid-drive vehicles, computer techniques have been developed to optimize the operating strategies. Ford researchers3, as well as studying series and parallel systems, have also examined the combined series/parallel one shown at (b). The complexity of the analysis is shown by the fact that in one system, having four clutches, there are 16 possible configurations depending on state of engagement. They also differentiated between types with and without wall-plug re-energization of the batteries between trips.

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