= power output, in hp

Similarly, in terms of kW, it is expressed as:


* At lower pressures, the pump work is negligible, but at higher pressures, it may play a somewhat larger role. In a 100 MW regeneration cycle, for example, the total pump work per unit of mass passing through the first stage turbine is 3.73 Btu/lbm (8.68 kJ/kg) compared to turbine work output of 422.5 Btu/lbm (982.7 kJ/kg) and heat input of 1134.4 Btu/lbm (2,638.6 kJ/kg) into the steam generator. Therefore, the pump work is 0.3% of the heat input and 0.9% of the turbine work.

The theoretical water rate (TWR), or steam rate (TSR), is the amount of steam required by the turbine, at ideal expansion, to produce a given unit of work output. It is expressed, in English system units (refer to conversion tables for SI unit equivalents), as:


Figure 11-31 provides a series of diagrams showing the effect of changes in steam temperature, steam pressure, and exhaust pressure on ideal Rankine Cycle performance.

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